Governments, Countries, GeoPolitics, International Relations, International Organizations, NWO, NGO, United Nations, Treaties, G20


ASEAN ( Association of South East Asian Nations) (WIKI)
· It is a political and economic organisation of 10 South-East Asian nations
· Formed in 1967
· Founding members: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand
· HQ : Jakarta, Indonesia
Current members are:
1. Indonesia
2. Malaysia
3. Philippines
4. Singapore
5. Thailand
6. Brunei
7. Cambodia
8. Laos
9. Myanmar (Burma)
10. Vietnam

o   Accelerating economic growth, social progress, and socio-cultural evolution among its members,
o Protection of regional stability
o Providing a mechanism for member countries to resolve differences peacefully
‘The ASEAN Way’ means : Doctrine that the member countries will largely mind their own business when it comes to internal matters of member countries
· ASEAN Plus Three: Was created to improve existing ties with the China, Japan and South Korea.
· If the ASEAN nations were a single country, their combined economy would rank the 7th largest in the world

Has and FTA with ASEAN (operational since 2010)
Shares border both land/marine
Large number of Indian origin people living in these countries

ASEAN Summits (Association of South East Asian Nation)
Headquarters – Jakarta, Indonesia
Establishment –  8 August 1967
Total Countries – 10 (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Secretary General – Le Luong Minh (Vietnam)
Chairman – Philippines Rodrigo Duterte
Summits held –
24th ASEAN Summit 2014 (May)– Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar
25th ASEAN Summit 2014 (November)– Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar
26th ASEAN Summit 2015 (April)– Langkawi, Malaysia
27th ASEAN Summit 2015 (November)– Manila, Philippines
28th ASEAN Summit 2016 ( April ) – Vientiane – Laos
29th ASEAN Summit 2016 ( November )-Vientiane- Laos
30th  ASEAN Summit  2017 (April) –       Philippines,Metro Manila
31st  ASEAN Summit 2017 (November) – Philippine, Clark, Freeport Zone

APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) (WIKI)
· It is a regional economic forum of 21 Pacific Rim countries
· Established in 1989
• HQ: Singapore
· APEC’s 21 members aim to promote free trade throughout the Asia- Pacific region
· APEC account for about half the world’s trade and almost 60% of global trade
· It established in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the world
· To fears that highly industrialized Japan (a member of G8 ) would come to dominate economic activity in the Asia-Pacific region
· To establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe
· India has requested membership in APEC, and received initial support from the United States, Japan, Australia and Papua New Guinea. Officials have decided not to allow India to join for various reasons, considering that India does not border the Pacific Ocean, which all current members do. However, India was invited to be an observer for the first time in November 2011.

APEC Summits (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) (WIKI)
Headquarters – Singapore
Establishment – 1989
Total Countries – (Australia, Canada, Brunei, Chile, china, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States, Vietnam). These are total 21 countries.
Executive Director – Alan Bollard
Summit Held –
26th APEC Summit 2014 – Beijing, China
27th APEC Summit 2015 – Philippines, Manila
28th APEC Summit 2016 – Peru, Lima
28th : 2016  November 19–20      in  Peru
29th  : 2017 November 11–12      in Vietnam
29th APEC Summit 2017 – Vietnam, Danang
30th APEC Summit 2018 –  Papua, New Guinea Port Moresby
31st APEC Summit 2019 –  Chile
32nd APEC Summit 2020 – Malaysia
33rd APEC Summit 2021 –  New Zealand
34th APEC Summit 2022 –  Thailand
35th APEC Summit 2023 –   Mexico
36th APEC Summit 2024 –   Brunei
37th APEC Summit 2025 –  Republic of Korea
38th APEC Summit 2026 –  Peru

BBIN ( Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal) (WIKI)
·It is a sub-regional architecture of these four countries
·Aims to formulate, implement and review quadrilateral agreements across areas such as water resources
management, connectivity of power, transport, and infrastructure

BCIM Bangladesh-China-Inida-Myanmar (WIKI) 
Aim:  greater integration of trade and investment between the four countries
· BCIM economic corridor is an initiative conceptualised for significant gains through sub-regional economic co-operation with BCIM
· The multi-modal corridor will be the first expressway between India and China and will pass through Myanmar and Bangladesh
· BCIM evolved from ‘Kunming Initiative

BIMSTEC ( Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation) (WIKI)
· It is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia. Established in 1997 in Bangkok. Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand were founding members. Now it has seven members.
Headquarters is in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Present members :
1.  Bangladesh
2.  India
3.  Myanmar
4.  Sri Lanka
5.  Thailand
6.  Bhutan
7.  Nepal

· The main objective of BIMSTEC is technological and economic cooperation among south Asian and south east Asian countries along the coast of the bay of Bengal . Commerce, investment, technology, tourism, human resource development, agriculture, fisheries, transport and communication, textiles, leather etc. have been included in it
· BIMSTEC uses the alphabetical order for chairmanship

BIMSTEC uses the alphabetical order for the Chairmanship. The Chairmanship of BIMSTEC has been taken in rotation commencing with Bangladesh (1997–1999), India (2000) Myanmar (2001–2002), Sri Lanka (2002–2003), Thailand (2003–2005), Bangladesh (2005–2006). Bhutan asked for the skip due to some political problem. So it’s turned to India (2006–2009). In November 2009, Myanmar hosted the 12th Ministerial Meeting and assumed BIMSTEC Chairmanship. The 13th Ministerial Meeting also chaired by Myanmar, which was held in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar on 22 January 2011. Nepal formally took over the new Chairmanship as on 4 March 2014. Sumith Nakandala of Sri Lanka became the first Secretary General of BIMSTEC
· Current chairmanship : Nepal
BIMSTEC Summits (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation)
Headquarters – Dhaka
Establishment – 6 June 1997
Chairmanship – Nepal (since 2014)
Total Countries – Bangladesh, India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal.
The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia
Summits Held –
1st  BIMSTEC Summit 2004 – Thailand, Bangkok
2nd BIMSTEC Summit 2008 – India,       New Delhi
3rd BIMSTEC Summit 2014 –  Myanmar, Nay Pyi Taw
4th BIMSTEC Summit 2017 –  Nepal, Kathmandu

BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa ) (WIKI)
Originally the first four were grouped as “BRIC” (or “the BRICs”), before the induction of South Africa in 2010. The BRICS members are all leading developing or newly industrialized countries, but they are distinguished by their large, sometimes fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional affairs; all five are G-20 members. Since 2009, the BRICS nations have met annually at formal summits. China will host the 9th BRICS summit in Xiamen on September 3rd, 4th and 5th, 2017.
The five BRICS countries represent half of the world population; all five members are in the top 25 of the world by population.

The eighth BRICS summit was held in Goa from 15 to 16 October 2016. The summit concluded with adaptation of GOA DECLARATION. The objective of GOA DECLARATION is to “curb terrorism “
NEW DELHI DECLARATION ON EDUCATION adopted in the 4th Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Education in New Delhi

The theme for the summit was “Building Responsive, Inclusive and Collective Solutions”.

First-ever BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach Summit was also held on side-lines of 2016 BRICS Summit.

The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states.

The bank is headquartered in Shanghai, China. The first regional office of the NDB will be opened in Johannesburg, South Africa.

BRICS Summits
Countries (5) – Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
6th BRICS Summit 2014 – Fortaleza, Brazil
7th BRICS Summit 2015 – UFA, Russia
8th BRICS Summit 2016 – Benaulim, Goa, India
9th BRICS Summit 2017 – Xiamen, China

Members : India, Brazil, Germany and Japan
· All members support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council

Each of these four countries have figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN’s establishment.
· Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5)
· G4 campaigns for U.N. Reforms, including more representation for developing countries, both in the
permanent and non-permanent categories, in the UNSC

IBSA (for India-Brazil-South Africa) (WIKI)
All are Developing Democracies
· The forum provides the three countries with a platform to engage in discussions for cooperation in the field of agriculture, trade, culture, and defence among others.
· IBSA was formalised and launched through the adopti on of the “Brasilia Declaration
Brasilia Declaration (2003) : Approved urgent need for reforms in the United Nations, especially
the Security Council.
IBSA Summits
Headquarters – Stafford St, Abbotsford, Victoria
Established – 6th June, 2003
IBSA Dialogue Forum – India, Brazil, South Africa.
1st: March 5th, 2004, in New Delhi
2nd: March 3rd, 2005, in Cape Town
3rd: March 30th, 2006, in Rio de Janeiro
4th: July 16th and 17th, 2007, in New Delhi
5th: May 11th, 2008, in Somerset West
6th: August 31st to September 1st, 2009, in Brasília
7th: March 8th, 2011, in New Delhi

· The Group of 7 (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
· The European Union is also represented within the G7.
· These countries are the seven major advanced economies as reported by the International Monetary Fund.
· G7 countries represent more than 64% of the net global wealth
· Common denominator among members is the economy and long-term political motives

G-7 Annual Summits (Earlier it was G8, Now Russia suspended Temporarily)
Establishment – 1975
Group of Seven Countries – France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States of America, Canada.
40th G8 Summit 2014 – Brussels, Belgium
41st G8 Summit 2015 – Schloss Elmau, Germany
42nd G8 Summit 2016 – Shima, Japan
43rd G8 Summit 2017 – Italy
44th G8 Summit 2018 – Canada
45th G8 Summit 2019 – France
46th G8 Summit 2020 – United States
47th G8 Summit 2021 – United Kingdom

The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) (WIKI)
The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is an international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean. The IORA is a regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them. It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation and Investment, Promotion as well as Social Development of the region. The Coordinating Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.

21 member states : South Africa, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius,
Seychelles, Iran, Oman, UAE, Yemen, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Australia and Somalia.

Maldives, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar are NOT members

The organisation was first established as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius on March 1995 and formally launched in 1997 by the conclusion of a multilateral treaty known as the Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation.

The objectives of IORA are:

  1. To promote sustainable growth and balanced development of the region and member states
  2. To focus on those areas of economic cooperation which provide maximum opportunities for development, shared interest and mutual benefits
  3. To promote liberalisation, remove impediments and lower barriers towards a freer and enhanced flow of goods, services, investment, and technology within the Indian Ocean rim.

IORA members undertake projects for economic co-operation relating to trade facilitation and liberalisation, promotion of foreign investment, scientific and technological exchanges, tourism, movement of natural persons and service providers on a non-discriminatory basis; and the development of infrastructure and human resources, poverty alleviation, promotion of maritime transport and related matters, cooperation in the fields of fisheries trade, research and management, aquaculture, education and training, energy, IT, health, protection of the environment, agriculture, disaster management.

The Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (WIKI)
The Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC) is an initiative by six countries – India and five ASEAN countries, namely, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam for cooperation in tourism, culture, education, as well as transport and communications. It was launched in 2000 at Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Both the Ganga and the Mekong are civilizational rivers, and the MGC initiative aims to facilitate closer contacts among the people inhabiting these two major river basins. The MGC is also indicative of the cultural and commercial linkages among the member countries of the MGC down the centuries.

Efforts are also underway to widen collaboration between MGC countries in SMEs, conservation of rice germplasm, health and pandemic management, establishment of a Common Archival Resource Centre at Nalanda University and through Quick Impact Projects.

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) (WIKI)
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is an ambitious, comprehensive, and high-standard trade and investment agreement being negotiated between the United States and the European Union (EU). TTIP will help unlock opportunity for American families, workers, businesses, farmers and ranchers through increased access to European markets for Made-in-America goods and services. This will help to promote U.S. international competitiveness, jobs and growth.

Its main three broad areas are:
o market access;
o specific regulation; and
o broader rules and principle s and modes of co-operation

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. These countries, except for Uzbekistan had been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organisation. On July 10, 2015, the SCO decided to admit India and Pakistan as full members.

India and Pakistan signed the memorandum of obligations on 24 June 2016 at Tashkent, thereby starting the formal process of joining the SCO as full members. The acceptance process will take some months, by which they are expected to become full members by the next meeting at Astana in 2017

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional international organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia. Its member states include.
Afghanistan BhutanPakistan Bangladesh India Nepal Maldives PakistanSri Lanka

SAARC comprises 3% of the world’s area, 21% of the world’s population and 3.8% of the global economy. SAARC was founded in Dhaka, Bangladesh on 8th December, 1985. Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu Nepal. The organization promotes development of economic and regional integration. It launched the South Asian free trade area in 2006. SAARC maintains permanent diplomatic relations at the United Nations as an observer and has developed links with multilateral entities, including the European Union.
SAARC Summits (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)
Headquarters – Kathmandu, Nepal
Formation – 16 January, 1987
First holder – Abul Ahsan
Secretary General– Arjun Bahadur Thapa
Countries (8)– Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
SAARC Summit Held –
18th SAARC Summit 2014 – Kathmandu, Nepal
19th SAARC Summit 2016 – Islamabad, Pakistan
20th SAARC Summit 2018

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an intergovernmental economic organization with 35 member countries, founded in 1960 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The mission of the OECD is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members.
Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries.

In 1948, the OECD originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC).
In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states.

The OECD headquartere at Paris, France. The OECD is funded by contributions from member states.

 Australia  Austria  Belgium  Canada  Chile  Czech Republic  Denmark  Estonia  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Iceland  Ireland  Israel  Italy  Japan  Korea  Latvia  Luxembourg  Mexico  Netherlands  New Zealand  Norway  Poland  Portugal  Slovak Republic  Slovenia  Spain  Sweden  Switzerland  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States

G20 (WIKI)
The G20 or Group of Twenty is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies. It was founded in 1999 with the aim of studying, reviewing, and promoting high-level discussion of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability. It seeks to address issues that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization. The G20 heads of government or heads of state have periodically conferred at summits since their initial meeting in 2008, and the group also hosts separate meetings of finance ministers and central bank governors. The G20 membership comprises a mix of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population, 85 per cent of global gross domestic product and over 75 per cent of global trade. The members of the G20 are

 Argentina  Australia  Brazil  Canada  China  France  Germany  India  Indonesia  Italy  Japan  Republic of Korea  Mexico  Russia  Saudi Arabia  South Africa  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States  European Union.

The work of G20 members is supported by several international organisations that provide policy advice. The G20 also regularly engages with non-government sectors. Engagement groups from business (B20), civil society (C20), labour (L20), think tanks (T20) and youth (Y20) are holding major events during the year, the outcomes of which will contribute to the deliberations of G20 leaders.

The heads of the G20 nations met semi-annually at G20 summits between 2009 and 2010.

Since the November 2011 Cannes summit, all G20 summits have been held annually.
G-20 Summits
Headquarters – Cancún, Mexico
Establishment – 20 August 2003
Chairperson– Angela Merkel
Total Member Countries– 20
Countries = Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, European Union
9th G 20 Meeting 2014 – Brisbane, Australia
10th G 20 Meeting 2015 – Antalya, Turkey
11th G 20 Meeting 2016 – Hangzhou, China
12th G 20 Meeting 2017 – Germany
13th G 20 Meeting 2018 – Argentina, Buenos Aires

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an intergovernmental organization of 13 nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna. countries accounted for an estimated 42 % of global oil production and 73 % of the world’s oil reserves, giving OPEC a major influence on global oil prices that were previously determined by American-dominated multinational oil companies.

OPEC stated mission is "to coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its member countries and ensure the stabilization of oil markets, in order to secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consumers, a steady income to producers, and a fair return on capital for those investing in the petroleum industry. The organization is also a significant provider of information about the international oil market.

OPEC’s members are
 Algeria  Angola  Ecuador  Gabon  Iran  Iraq  Kuwait  Libya  Nigeria  Qatar  Saudi Arabia  United Arab Emirates  Venezuela.
Two-thirds of OPEC’s oil production and reserves are in its six Middle Eastern countries that surround the oil-rich Persian Gulf. The formation of OPEC marked a turning point toward national sovereignty over natural resources, and OPEC decisions have come to play a prominent role in the global oil market and international relations.
OPEC International Seminar
Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
Establishment – 1960, Baghdad
Secretary General – Mohammed Sanusi Barkindo
Total Countries – (Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela).
OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
6th International OPEC – Veinna, Austria

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), or the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States (until January 23, 2017) and Vietnam. The finalized proposal was signed on 4 February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand, concluding seven years of negotiations. It currently cannot be ratified due to U.S. withdrawal from the agreement on 23 January 2017. The former Obama administration claimed that the agreement aimed to "promote economic growth; support the creation and retention of jobs; enhance innovation, productivity and competitiveness; raise living standards; reduce poverty in the signatories; countries; and promote transparency, good governance, and enhanced labour and environmental protections. The TPP contains measures to lower both non-tariff and tariff barriers to trade, and establish an investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS)  mechanism.

The TPP began as an expansion of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPSEP or P4) signed by Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore in 2005.
Beginning in 2008, additional countries joined the discussion for a Broader agreement:
Australia, Canada, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, the United States,  and Vietnam, bringing the total number of countries participating in the negotiations to twelve.
Current trade agreements between participating countries, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), will be reduced to those provisions that do not conflict with the TPP or provide greater trade liberalization than the TPP. The Obama administration considered the TPP a companion agreement to the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), a broadly similar agreement between the U.S. and the European Union.

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a proposed free trade agreement (FTA) between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
 Brunei  Cambodia  Indonesia  Laos  Malaysia  Myanmar  Philippines  Singapore  Thailand  Vietnam and the six states with which ASEAN has existing free trade agreements
(Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).

RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia. The agreement is scheduled to be finalized by the end of 2017. RCEP is viewed as an alternative to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a proposed trade agreement which includes several Asian and American nations but excludes China and India. In 2016, prospective RCEP member states accounted for a population of 3.4 billion people with a total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of $21.4 trillion, approximately 30 % of the world’s GDP.

Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) (2010) (WIKI)
Establishment – 2009
Total Countries – 58 Countries
European Union members represented by the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission only (as observer)
Summits Held –
1st  NSS 2010 – Washington, D.C, USA
2nd NSS 2012 – South Korea, Seoul
3rd  NSS 2014 – Hague, Netherlands
4th  NSS 2016 – Washington, D.C, USA
5th  NSS 2017 – India

East Asia Summit (EAS) (WIKI)
Establishment – 1991 by Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad.
Countries: Australia, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, United States, VietnamThe East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually
EAS meetings are held after annual ASEAN leaders’ meetings.
The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 14 December 2005.
Summits Held –
9th East Asia Summit 2014 – Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar
10th East Asia Summit 2015 – Kuala Lumpur .Malaysia
11th East Asia Summit 2016 – Vientiane, Laos
12th East Asia Summit 2017 – TBD, Philippines

Headquarters – Brussels, Belgium
Establishment –  4 April, 1949
Secretary General – Jens Stoltenberg
Total Member Countries – 28
NATO – North Atlantic treaty Organization
Summit Held in –
NATO Summit 2014 – Wales (Britain), UK (Britain last hosted the summit in 1990, when Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister)
NATO Summit 2016 – Poland, Warsaw
NATO Summit 2017 –  Belgium, Brussels
NATO Summit 2018 – Turkey, Istanbul

Asian Development Bank (ADB) Meeting (WIKI)
Headquarters – Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines
Establishment – 19 December 1966
President – Takehiko Nakao
Total Member Countries – 67 countries
ADB – Asian Development Bank
Annual meeting of the board of governors of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) held every year.
ADB Annual Meeting 2014 – Astana, Kazakhstan
ADB Annual Meeting 2015 – Baku, Azerbaijan
ADB Annual Meeting 2016 – Messe Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
ADB Annual Meeting 2017 – Pacifico Yokohama, Yokohama, Japan

Global earth hour 2015 – Seoul
Global earth hour 2016- Australia

NAM Summit (WIKI)
Headquarters – Jakarta, Indonesia
Establishment – 1961, Belgrade
Secretary General – Nicolás Maduro
Total Member Countries – 120 countries
NAM Summit Full Form – Non-Allied Moment
16th NAM(Non-Aligned Movement) Summit 2012 was held in Tehran, Iran.
It has 120+2 (Two nations namely Azerbaijan Republic and Fiji) members.
17th NAM summit 2016 was held in Caracas,Venezuela.

Global Insurance Summit (WIKI)
8th Global insurance Summit Was held in 2015  – Mumbai

Establishment – 1907
Chairman – Joseph Muscat
Total Members Countries – 52 countries
CHOGM Full Form – Common Wealth Heads of Government Meeting
Held After Gap – Every Two years
2015 CHOGM Meeting Was held In – Malta
Next CHOGM Will held In United Kingdom 2018

UN Climate Change Summit (WIKI)
Meetings :-
1st meeting 2000 – The Hague, Netherlands
2nd meeting 2001 – Bonn, Germany
3rd meetibg 2001 – Marrakech, Morocco
4th meeting 2002 – New Delhi, India
5th meeting 2003 – Milan, Italy
6th meeting 2004 – Buenos Aires, Argentina
7th meeting 2005 – Montreal, Canada
8th meeting 2006 – Nairobi, Kenya
9th meeting 2007 – Bali, Indonesia
10th meeting 2008 – Poznań, Poland
11th meeting 2009 – Copenhagen, Denmark
12th meeting 2010 – Cancún, Mexico
13th meeting 2011 – Durban, South Africa
14th meeting 2012 – Doha, Qatar
15th meeting 2013 – Warsaw, Poland
16th meeting 2014 – Lima, Peru
17th meeting 2015 – Paris, France
18th meeting 2016 – Marrakech, Morocco
19th meeting 2017 – Bonn, Germany

22nd CII Partnership Summit & 1st Sunrise AP Investment Meet (FB) (WIKI)
Headquarters – New Delhi, India
Establishment – 1895
Executive Vice Chairperson – Shobana Kamineni
Place – Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

India Investment Summit (WEBSITE) (WIKI)
Date – 4th and 5th February, 2016
Place – New Delhi

International Organisations that India is a part of:
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) : organisations of South Asian countries.
BRICS : Organisation of large economies of NICs (Newly industrialized country) namely Brazil, Russia, China, India, South Africa.
Commonwealth of Nations
United Nations
G-20 major economies
G8+5 : G8 Economies i.e. U.S., U.K., France, Japan, Germany, Canada, Japan, Russia(now suspended) + China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Mexico.
G4 nations: Informal group of countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council. It consists of India, Germany, Japan and Brazil.
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC): international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia. These are: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal.
Mekong–Ganga Cooperation: An organisation to increase cooperation in  tourism, cultural, educational, and transportation sectors. This is comprised of  India, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.
Asia Cooperation Dialogue: A pan-Asian organisation which integrates other organisations like SAARC, ASEAN and GCC.
Indian-Ocean Rim Association: Organisation of countries which have a coastline on the Indian Ocean.
Non-Aligned Movement

International summits and forums in which India participates:
IBSA Dialogue Forum: International tripartite grouping for promoting international cooperation among India, Brazil and South Africa.
Asia–Europe Meeting

East Asia Summit

Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia

Organisations that India may become a part of in the future:
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): India has applied for membership in APEC.
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO): India has been invited to join SCO as a full member by Russia. This invitation is supported by China.

UN – United Nations (WIKI)
UNSC – United Nations Security Council (WIKI)
UNGA – United Nations General Assembly (WIKI)
UNHCOR – United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (WIKI)
UNDP – United Nations Development Programme (WIKI)
UNP – United Nations Peacekeeping (WIKI)
OAS – Organization of American States (WIKI)
FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization – FIAT PANIS (WIKI)
ILO – International Labour Organization (WIKI)
WTO – World Trade Organization (WIKI)
OECD – Organization for Economic Co-Operation (WEBSITE) (WIKI)
United Nations Environmental Programme (WIKI)
Amnesty International (WIKI)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (WIKI)
United Nations Human Rights (WIKI)
International Criminal Court (WEBSITE) (WIKI)
Human Rights Watch – (WEBSITE) (WIKI)



EU member country since: 1 January 1995
Capital: Vienna
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 1 December 2007


EU member country since: 1 January 1958
Capital: Brussels
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 26 March 1995


EU member country since: 1 January 2007
Capital: Sofia
Currency: Bulgarian lev BGN
Schengen: not a member of the Schengen area


EU member country since: 1 July 2013
Capital: Zagreb
Currency: Croatian Kuna HRK
Schengen: not a member of the Schengen area


EU member country since: 1 May 2004
Capital: Nicosia
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 2008
Schengen: not a member of the Schengen area

Czech RepublicCzech Republic

EU member country since: 1 May 2004
Capital: Prague
Currency: Czech koruna (CZK)
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007


EU member country since: 1 January 1973
Capital: Copenhagen
Currency: Danish krone DKK
Schengen: Schengen area member since 25 March 2001


EU member country since: 1 May 2004
Capital: Tallinn
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 2011
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007


EU member country: since 1 January 1995
Capital: Helsinki
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 25 March 2001


EU member country since: 1 January 1958
Capital: Paris
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 26 March 1995


EU member country since: 1 January 1958
Capital: Berlin
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 26 March 1995


EU member country since: 1 January 1981
Capital: Athens
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 2001
Schengen: Schengen area member since 1 January 2000


EU member country since: 1 May 2004
Capital: Budapest
Currency: Hungarian Forint HUF
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007


EU member country since 1 January 1973
Capital: Dublin
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: not a member of the Schengen area


EU member country since: 1 January 1958
Capital: Rome
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 26 October 1997


EU member country since: 1 May 2004
Capital: Riga
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 2014
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007


EU member country since: 1 May 2004
Capital: Vilnius
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 2015
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007


EU member country since: 1 January 1958
Capital: Luxembourg
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 26 March 1995


EU member country: since 1 May 2004
Capital: Valletta
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozone since 1 January 2008
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007


EU member country: since 1 January 1958
Capital: Amsterdam
Currency: Euro. Member of the eurozone since 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 26 March 1995


EU member country: since 1 May 2004
Capital: Warsaw
Currency: Polish Złoty PLN
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007

EU member country: since 1 January 1986
Capital: Lisbon
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 26 March 1995


EU member country: since 1 January 2007
Capital: Bucharest
Currency: Romanian Leu RON
Schengen: not a member of the Schengen area


EU member country: since 1 May 2004
Capital: Bratislava
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 2009
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007


EU member country: since 1 May 2004
Capital: Ljubljana
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 2007
Schengen: Schengen area member since 21 December 2007


EU member country: since 1 January 1986
Capital: Madrid
Currency: euro. Member of the eurozonesince 1 January 1999
Schengen: Schengen area member since 26 March 1995


EU member country: since 1 January 1995
Capital: Stockholm
Currency: Swedish krona SEK
Schengen: Schengen area member since 25 March 2001

United KingdomUnited Kingdom

EU member country: since 1 January 1973 – More information on Brexit
Capital: London
Currency: pound sterling GBP
Schengen: not a member of the Schengen area

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